4/4 Time is the most "COMMON" time signature.
The top # tells you how many beats are in every measure.
The bottom # tells you what note equals 1 beat.
In 4/4 "Common Time" the quarter note equals 1 beat. Say "Four Quarter Notes" to define 4/4.
If the bottom # gets cut in half from 4 to 2 then all of the note values get "cut" in half..."Cut Time." Say "Two Half Notes" to define 2/2.
"Waltz Time" feels very different than "Common Time." The first beat is strong and the 2nd & 3rd are weak...think, "OOM pa pa." Say "Three Quarter Notes" to define 3/4.
If the bottom number changes to an 8 (6/8, 3/8, etc.), then all note values double (4x2=8). Say "Six 8th Notes" to define 6/8.
16th notes = 1/4 of a beat. Four 16th notes = 1 beat.There are sixteen 16th notes in a common measure of 4/4
8th notes = 1/2 of a beat. Two 8th notes = 1 beat. There are eight 8th notes in a common measure of 4/4
Quarter notes = 1 beat. There are four Quarter notes in a common measure of 4/4.
Half notes = 2 beats. There are two Half notes in a common measure of 4/4.
Whole notes = 4 beats. There is one Whole note in a common measure of 4/4.